Norway is in quite a unique position to develop onshore and offshore AWE: scarcely populated country, good wind resource in large parts of the country and a highly skilled work force. Norway hosts with Kitemill one of the leading AWE developers.
1.2 AWE potential
1.2.1 Wind resources
Norway’s wind potential increases significantly with AWE.
Figure 9: Wind resource potential Norway
1.2.2 Site availability
Norway has large areas of sparsely populated rural areas. Detailed site analysis is required.
1.2.3 Roll-out opportunities
1.3 Energy policies and support
1.3.1 Renewable Energy legislation
Renewables receive revenue support through the Norwegian and Swedish Electricity Certificate System. The green certificates are technology-neutral: For the producer of RE, the cheapest technology is the best choice because it leads to higher margins. Therefore there is no incentive to go for innovative, new technologies like AWE.
Map needs to be extended to Northern Norway.
No mentioning of AWE in NECP.
1.3.3 R&D / Investment support
1.3.4 Revenue support
There is no special remuneration for AWE.
1.4 Regulation and permitting
Tbd – info from Kitemill
1.4.2 Airspace regulation
- Freedom of movement: In general aircraft, including UAVs, are free to fly in class G airspace without particular permission but must of course comply with operating rules and applicable certification
Authority policy is not to reserve airspace for particular users except in some cases for the military and the police. The approach is to see to that all potential users have access to information about air activity and that obstacles are marked and lighted so that pilots are able to avoid hazards.
- Marking and lighting: Regulation FOR-2014-07-15-980 on reporting, registration and marking of aviation obstacles (hereafter referred to as Marking reg). Regulation FOR-2015-11-30-1404 on UAVs (hereafter referred to as the UAV reg).
Permanent aviation obstacles higher than 60 m shall be marked. Erection shall be reported to CAA minimum 30 days in advance. Temporary obstacles higher than 15 m shall be marked (Marking reg § 4 and § 7). Kitemill has deviating approval for test flying at Lista airport in danger area D-257.
- Kite: (EU) 2019/947 is adopted in Norwegian regulation and a kite is considered to be a UAV. Marking and lighting will be part of a SORA for each operating scenario. According to transition regulation (UAV reg – RO3 Advanced) a typical AWE kite type aircraft would be subject to the following lighting rule when flying above 120 meters in non-controlled airspace and in any case if flying BLOS or in controlled airspace: Equipped with low intensity light, white, minimum 10 candela, flashing minimum 20/min. If flying in darkness the requirement would be the same as for manned aircraft (EU) 923/2012 3215 (UAV reg).
- Support struts and anchoring devices: If extending horizontally more than 90 meters from the obstacle, markers or lights (low intensity firm red) at attachment points and other points not more than 90 meters horizontally and 75 meters vertically between markers or lights (Marking reg 12). For anchoring of balloons other rules apply.
- Color marking: Color marking shall in daylight be visible at a distance of minimum 1500 meters from every approaching Except for wind turbines color marking shall be red or yellow, or a combination of red and white, or yellow and white. Except for wind turbines color marking shall be fluorescent. Details are given in an attachment. (Marking reg § 15 (1)).
- A wind power plant which consists of five or more wind turbines may, if approved by the appropriate authority, limit marking to the perimeter of the plant provided that the distance between the wind turbines which are marked is not greater than necessary for the sake of aviation safety. It may be required that, additionally, the center- or the highest wind turbine shall be marked. If flashing lights are used at a wind power plant the lights shall flash simultaneously (Marking reg § 10 (2)).
- Wind turbines up to 150 meters shall be marked with medium intensity (2000 cd) obstacle lights type B (flashing red 20-60/min) or C (firm red). No requirement for lighting at intermediate levels (Marking reg § 17 (4)).
- Wind turbines which are 150 meters or higher shall be marked with high intensity (20 000 cd) obstacle lights type B (white flashing 40-60/min). No requirement for lighting at intermediate levels (Marking reg § 17 (5)). For obstacles which shall be marked with lights type B and C the intensity may be reduced in good In > 5 km to 600 cd and in > 10 km to 200 cd (Marking reg § 16 (10)).
- The regulation has opening for automatic system activation of lighting when aircraft are detected in the vicinity but there are no standard requirements for technology and neither any approved systems so far. Public opinion is pushing the licensing authority (NVE) about automatic systems as the wind power plant lighting is claimed to deteriorate living quality in neighbouring towns. The NVE seems in some cases to be in favour of making such systems a requirement for license to build but at the moment the civil aviation authority maintains that such a requirement can lawfully only be considered and applied when a plant is built. Thus, applications may be turned down based on consideration for the public interest and environment even if the applicant and the licensing authority agree on such a requirement. The civil aviation authority has published on their website that they are working on the matter.
1.5 Key policy stakeholders
1.5.2 Ministry of Energy
Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE).
1.5.3 Other national ministries / agencies
Ministry for Research, Ministry for Environment were not contacted yet.
1.5.4 Regional / local public administration
1.6 AWE stakeholders
1.6.2 IEA Task 48 Participants
Norway is Task 48 participant.
1.6.3 Other (potential) stakeholders / clients
- Diinef: Interested in hydraulic ground station; wanted to be involved in MegaAWE
1.7.1 Test sites
- Kitemill has its test site at Lista airport.
- A project under the European Innovation Fund foresees an AWE wind farm in Eastern
1.7.2 Commercial sites
Not available yet.
1.7.3 Industry & Jobs
- Further development of AWE OEM.
- Deployment on- and offshore
- Supply chain
Contact us. We are looking forward to meeting you!