Germany has good wind potential which it could significantly increase with AWE. The wind sector and the aviation sector are well developed. AWE has not been recognised in renewable policies yet – but if the government started supporting AWE, other countries may follow.
1.2 AWE potential
1.2.1 Wind resources
AWE would provide nearshore and offshore conditions across all Germany except the very South close to the Alpes.
Figure 1: Wind resource potential Germany
1.2.2 Site availability
Germany is in general quite densely populated but there are also many rural areas with few inhabitants. Detailed site analysis is required.
1.2.3 Roll-out opportunities
- Nearshore repowering
- AWE farms in sparsely populated in North and Eastern Germany
- First single or few systems in Southern and Western Germany
1.3 Energy policies and support
1.3.1 Renewable Energy legislation
The key RE law is the EEG. As per 6/2022 AWE is not considered in the law.
- AWE is not mentioned in the
- Turbines up to 750kW and pilot wind power plants are exempt from tenders, e. they receive the remuneration of the last round of tenders. AWE could fall under the corresponding regulations
- Innovation tenders: At the moment, AWE plants could probably only participate in innovation tenders in combination with other technologies. This makes AWE development even more difficult, as combined projects have an increased complexity. Innovation tenders could be extended for AWE plants that participate “alone”. However, this would mean that in a few years AWE systems would have to find a new regulation, as they may then no longer be considered a “real innovation” and should rather fall under the regular
- Pilot wind turbines: Although AWE turbines could be considered pilot wind turbines, they would only be able to be considered as such for a limited period of time, as commercial wind turbines would no longer fall into this category. For a larger number of plants, it would otherwise have to be proven again and again that “essential innovations that go far beyond the state of the art are tested”. In addition, the legislature obviously did not have AWE systems in mind, since e.B. terms such as “rotor diameter”, “hub height” and “tower types” are
No mentioning of AWE in NECP.
The remuneration of the last round of tenders (Anzulegender Wert) is at 6,18 ct€/kWh (BNetzA).
1.3.3 R&D / Investment support
There is a national programs for R&D support, e.g. Energieforschungsprogramm through which also AWE projects have been financed.
There are also regional support programs of the Bundesländer.
1.3.4 Revenue support
There is no special remuneration for AWE, see also above under RE legislation.
1.4 Regulation and permitting
Currently, two types of approval procedures are practiced in Germany for AWE plants:
- Immission law approval procedure according to BImSchG and according to 4. BImSchV for wind turbinesover > 50 m. According to § 1, paragraph 6 of the 4. BImSchV , those plants k require a permit insofar as they serve research, development or testing […] on a pilot plant
- Individual permits on the basis of a building permit or an airspace permit, whereby BauGB, LBO, BauNVo, Aviation Act (LuftVG), Aviation Ordinance (LuftVO) and the General Administrative Regulation for the Marking of Aviation Obstacles AVV) apply. For flight authorisations, see Chapter Error! Reference source not found..
In both process paths, AWE has not yet been considered as an independent technology. They are therefore treated partly as obstacles, partly as drones or unmanned aerialvehicles, kites or windturbines, leading to inconsistencies and uncertainties on the part of both the licensing authorities and project developers.
1.4.2 Airspace regulation
- Note: information is largely based on: “220207_FGW_IG-AW-Airspace_concepts air risk
- The national regulations to be taken into account are the Aviation Act (LuftVG), the Aviation Ordinance (LuftVO) and the General Administrative Regulation on the Marking of Obstacles to Aviation (AVV).
- According to § 14 LuftVG, the construction of buildings or installations on natural or artificial elevations with a height of more than 100 m requires a permit from the competent state aviation In addition, according to § 25 LuftVG, all aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles, require a permit from the aviation authority for take-offs and landings outside of airfields. The permit can also be linked to certain regulations (certain day and night marking, times, etc.). It is also possible to close airspace to air traffic or restrict transit.
- The BMDV considers AWES to be obstacles in a legal assessment of
- Kites in the LuftVO: The flying kites with a rope length of 100 m or more requires a permit from the highest aviation authority of the country (§ 19 LuftVO). In addition, the retaining rope of the kite must be marked with red and white flags every 100 m (§ 20 Abs. 1 LuftVO). At night, white and red flashing lights must be attached to the rope at equal intervals. These requirements are not possible for AWE systems to comply with, as they are not realistically feasible both technically and
- Marking of rope-shaped obstacles (AVV, in Part 2, paragraph 3): Rope-shaped obstacles above 100m shall be identified by spherical markings with a diameter of 60 cm and a maximum distance of 30 m from each other. The lighting of rope obstacles can be prescribed by the authorities, but is not technically specified (Art. 1, Part 2, para. 3, AVV).
This type of marking is also not feasible for AWE systems.
- By means of the demand-oriented night marking (“BNK” system), wind turbines are only to be fired when an airborne object comes into the immediate vicinity, the so-called effective range of the turbines. This might also be applied to AWE systems. According to the AVV, this is the “airspace extending around each obstacle within a radius of at least 4.000 metres and extending from the ground to a height of not less than 600 metres (2.000 feet) above the obstacle” [Annex 6, para. 1, AVV].
- Luftfahrt Bundesamt – Betriebsgenehmigungen (lba.de): https://www.lba.de/DE/Drohnen/Betriebsgenehmigungen_LUC/Betriebsgenehmigungen_LUC_n
1.5 Key policy stakeholders
The parliamentarians have to propose changes to the EEG. Parliamentarians dealing with energy issues are members of the Ausschuss für Klimaschutz und Energie.
1.5.2 Ministry of Energy – BMWK
In the ministry there are departments dealing with the following:
- EEG: An employee referred to the No comments regarding AWE in the EEG were given.
- Innovation: In general knowledgeable about AWE and in Project proposals are in general welcome.
1.5.3 Other national ministries
– Ministry for Research
– Ministry for Environment
– Ministry for Mobility (Verkehrsministerium) is relevant for aviation-related issued.
1.5.4 Regional / local public administration
German AWE developers have been in contact with local or regional policy makers and public administration (Schleswig-Holstein, Brandenburg, Bavaria).
1.6 AWE stakeholders
There are four AWE developers, Skysails Power being the one company that it globally furthest advanced.
- kiteKRAFT GmbH
- SkySails Power
1.6.2 IEA Task 48 Participants
A number of stakeholders, especially research institutions organised already in the Task 48:
Research institutions / Universities:
- DLR V. Institut für Faserverbundleichtbau und Adaptronik
- LUH – Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Antriebssysteme und Leistungselektronik
- MSH Medical School Hamburg GmbH
- HM – Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften München, Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
- IMTEK – Institut für Mikrosystemtechnik, Lehrstuhl für Systemtheorie, Regelungstechnik und Optimierung Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
- Invent Gmbh
- Technische Universität Berlin Fakultät Verkehrs- und Maschinensysteme Hermann-Föttinger Institut für Strömungsmechanik (ISTA)
- Teut Windprojekte GmbH
- Hochschule Flensburg Wind Energy Technology Institute (WETI)
- Omexom Renewable Energies Offshore GmbH
- Universität Bonn Physikalisches Institut
- Universität Stuttgart
- RWTH Aachen, Institut für Flugsystemdynamik
- RWE Renewables GmbH
1.6.3 Other (potential) stakeholders / clients Interest in AWE shown
- SH Netzwerkagentur Erneuerbare Energien
- Silence Aircraft GmbH
- FGW e.V.
- Stiftung OFFSHORE-WINDENERGIE
- CWD Center for Wind Power Drives an der RWTH Aachen
Potential clients / developers
- RWE Renewables: RWE has a team dedicated to Cooperation with selected AWE developers is on-going. RWE is actively looking for an AWE test site in Germany.
- EnBW: Is involved in a publicly funded project with Skysails.
1.7.1 Test sites
Current test sites:
- Klixbüll, Schleswig-Holstein (Skysails): Extensive testing around the clock, grid connected system exporting power
- Xxx, Brandenburg (Enerkite): Occasional testing, no grid connection
- Xxx, Bavaria (kiteKraft): Occasional testing, no grid connection Planned sites:
- RWE is actively looking for an own AWE test site in
- RWTH Aachen is developing a drone flight center where AWE could potentially fly as
- A joint test site would Ideally be placed in Northern Germany with good wind Logistically easy to reach for all German companies. Potentially in conjunction with DLR, energy utility or other.
1.7.2 Commercial sites
Not available yet.
1.7.3 Industry & Jobs
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